An introduction to the mitochondria and its inner and outer membrane

an introduction to the mitochondria and its inner and outer membrane The outer compartment is inside the inner membrane the outer mitochondrial membrane is composed of about 50% phospholipids by weight and contains a variety of enzymes involved in such diverse activities as the elongation of fatty acids, oxidation of epinephrine (adrenaline), and the degradation of tryptophan.

In oxidative phosphorylation, the reduced electron carriers (nadh and fadh 2) donate their electrons to the proteins of the etcthe electrons are passed from protein to protein in a stepwise fashion, coupled to proton pumping across the inner mitochondrial membrane, into the intermembrane space. The outer membrane of a mitochondrion contains many channels formed by the protein porin and acts like a sieve, filtering out molecules that are too big similarly, the inner membrane, which is highly convoluted so that a large number of infoldings called cristae are formed, also allows only certain molecules to pass through it and is much more selective than the outer membrane. Mitochondria are surrounded by a double-membrane system, consisting of inner and outer mitochondrial membranes separated by an intermembrane space (figure 101) the inner membrane forms numerous folds ( cristae ), which extend into the interior (or matrix ) of the organelle. Appoptosin interacts with mitochondrial outer-membrane fusion proteins and regulates mitochondrial morphology introduction mitochondria are dynamic organelles .

Introduction the mitochondrion is an organelle compartmented by two membranes (outer-membrane and inner-membrane) (pfanner & wiedemann, 2002), which divide this organelle into four compartments (outer-membrane, intermembrane space, inner-membrane and matrix). Mitochondria are organelles that have a double membrane structure the outer membrane defines the external shape of the mitochondrion and the inner membrane has many folds called cristae the space between the inner and outer membranes is called the intermembrane space the space inside the inner membrane is called the matrix of the mitochondrion. The outer and inner mitochondrial membranes are separated from each other by a narrow space called the intermembrane space or outer chamber or peri mitochondrial space outer membrane: the outer membrane is smooth it is freely permeable to most small molecules, having transmembrane channels formed by the protein porin.

The inner mitochondrial membrane is compartmentalized into numerous cristae, which expand the surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane, enhancing its ability to generate atp in typical liver mitochondria, for example, the surface area, including cristae, is about five times that of the outer membrane. Mitochondria i introduction the outer compartment is inside the inner membrane the outer mitochondrial membrane is composed of about 50% phospholipids by weight . Finally there's the matrix, which is the inside of the mitochondria created by the inner membrane the matrix contains enzymes for cellular respiration as well as its own ribosomes and dna needed . Proteins that control the survival or death of cells are specifically associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane, and permeability changes across the mitochondrial inner membrane, probably associated with ca 2+ transport and mitochondrial swelling, and the release of proteins, particularly cytochrome c, from the inter-membrane space, play an early role in the deciding the fate of the cell.

Originally, star was believed to stimulate cholesterol movement from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane as it was imported into the mitochondria the importation process was proposed to create contact sites between the two membranes, allowing cholesterol to flow down a chemical gradient. Mitochondrial outer membrane mitochondria it also helps define the inter-membrane space between itself and the mitochondrial inner membrane the outer membrane is made of the same . Prohibitin 2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane introduction the current paradigm is that the ubiquitinated mitochondrial outer membrane is the primary target . Mitochondria have two membranes: an outer membrane and an inner membrane the inner membrane has many infoldings called cristae that increase its surface area it is thought that as a result of the endocytosis of the bacterium, the inner mitochondrial membrane is derived from the larger eukaryote.

An introduction to the mitochondria and its inner and outer membrane

an introduction to the mitochondria and its inner and outer membrane The outer compartment is inside the inner membrane the outer mitochondrial membrane is composed of about 50% phospholipids by weight and contains a variety of enzymes involved in such diverse activities as the elongation of fatty acids, oxidation of epinephrine (adrenaline), and the degradation of tryptophan.

Furthermore, both mitochondria and chloroplasts possess an inner membrane with a more prokaryotic composition and an outer membrane with a more eukaryotic composition, consistent with a prokaryote engulfed by a eukaryote in light of this evidence, consider for a moment just how amazing the endosymbiotic theory is. Mitochondria are enclosed by a double-membrane system made up of an inner and an outer membrane the space between these two membranes is called (surprise) the intermembrane space the inner membrane encloses the interior of the mitochondrion, which is known as the mitochondrial matrix . We analyzed the intracellular localization of tmem65 immunoblot and immunostaining analysis revealed mitochondrial localization of tmem65 alkali extraction analysis and digitonin extraction test using isolated mitochondria revealed that tmem65 is an integral membrane protein that localizes to the inner-membrane of mitochondria. The current paradigm is that the ubiquitinated mitochondrial outer membrane is the primary target of engulfment by autophagosomes during mitophagy however, the types of organelle dysfunction that trigger mitophagy (eg, depolarization, presence of paternal mtdna) localize to the inner mitochondrial membrane (imm) and matrix.

  • Into the outer membrane of mitochondria introduction the protein translocase of the outer membrane, the tom tim23 translocase in the inner mitochondrial .
  • Cardiolipin - phospholipid, makes membrane impermeable to ions (unique to mitochondria inner membrane) mitochondrial damage and depolarization causes cardiolipin translocation to the outer mitochondrial membrane to initiate mitophagy (selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy).

Structure the structure of the inner mitochondrial membrane is extensively folded and compartmentalized the numerous invaginations of the membrane are called cristae, separated by crista junctions from the inner boundary membrane juxtaposed to the outer membrane. Fzo1/ugo1 complexes come together to fuse the outer membrane then the mgm1/mgm1 complexes come together to fuse the inner membrane describe the steps involving fusion for yeast mitochondria. The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (tom complex) functions as the main entry gate for mitochondrial precursor proteins after passing through the tom channel, the precursor proteins follow different import routes to the four mitochondrial subcompartments—outer membrane, intermembrane space, inner membrane, and matrix.

an introduction to the mitochondria and its inner and outer membrane The outer compartment is inside the inner membrane the outer mitochondrial membrane is composed of about 50% phospholipids by weight and contains a variety of enzymes involved in such diverse activities as the elongation of fatty acids, oxidation of epinephrine (adrenaline), and the degradation of tryptophan. an introduction to the mitochondria and its inner and outer membrane The outer compartment is inside the inner membrane the outer mitochondrial membrane is composed of about 50% phospholipids by weight and contains a variety of enzymes involved in such diverse activities as the elongation of fatty acids, oxidation of epinephrine (adrenaline), and the degradation of tryptophan. an introduction to the mitochondria and its inner and outer membrane The outer compartment is inside the inner membrane the outer mitochondrial membrane is composed of about 50% phospholipids by weight and contains a variety of enzymes involved in such diverse activities as the elongation of fatty acids, oxidation of epinephrine (adrenaline), and the degradation of tryptophan.
An introduction to the mitochondria and its inner and outer membrane
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